Edible Plant List

Updated: 3/22/2023

Edible Plant List Below:

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Edible Plants


Edible Safe List (Are there pros and cons to cooking certain plants?)

When you are in doubt and can play it safe, cook all plant food or at least wash with clean water.


BE EXTREMELY CAREFUL of common tansy or tansy wort – Yellow flower plant with spongy looking flower tips. EXTREMELY TOXIC.

Again, generally speaking – 30 days without food. 3 days without water (boil or purify due to pathogens). 

You can find pictures by using a search engine or going to the websites referenced within the Survival and Money page: https://jesuschrististheking.com/survival-money/.

M = Menopause, menstrual, etc.

B = Blood sugar

(M, B) Alfalfa – Leaves and shoots are edible, raw or cooked. Sprouted seed is edible. Alfalfa seed can improve HDL levels, reduce triglycerides and LDL, decreased blood glucose (benefits blood sugar), and relieve menopause. Taking seeds long-term is likely UNSAFE (source: WebMD). Can it help lower cholesterol? Helps bladder and prostate conditions, increases urine flow, kidney conditions, arthritis, high cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, upset stomach, and a bleeding disorder called thrombocytopenic purpura. Contains anti-oxidants, vitamin K, magnesium, folate, copper, etc. Aerial parts are anti-inflammatory.

Alpine speedwell – Leaves and shoots are edible, raw or cooked. Bitter? Cooking helps with this? Tonic, stomachic, diuretic, and expectorant?

Amaranth – Seeds can be used as a grain and leaves are edible, raw or cooked. Amaranth seeds are abundant in vitamins and minerals. However, wild plants of amaranth are often considered weeds.

American speedwell – All veronica species are edible, raw or cooked. Bitter as well. Different harvesting times help with bitterness. Tonic, stomachic, diuretic, and expectorant?

Agoseris – Flowers and leaves are edible. Part of the daisy family. Sap from stems and leaves can be chewed or eaten as gum. The leaves contain a number of nutrients including boron, zinc, iron, calcium, and potassium. High in silicon. High in vitamins A, B-complex, C, and D. A report says every part is safe, yet some reports say if it enters bloodstream it is toxic; CAUTION ADVISED.

(B) Apple – Domestic apple edible? Try to pick apples from the top and outside branches. Gala, Jonathan, Red Delicious, Jonagold, Golden Delicious, Honey Crisp, Rome, Fuji, Braeburn, Granny Smith, Pink Lady, etc., are edible. Low calories. High fiber. Apples contain carbs, which can raise blood sugar levels. However, the fiber in apples helps stabilize blood sugar levels, in addition to providing other health benefits. Apples are a rich source of phytonutrient (plant-based) antioxidants. Apples and apple juice are two of the best sources of the mineral boron, which may promote bone health. Apples contain natural fruit sugars, mostly in the form of fructose. Because of apples’ high fiber content, the fruit’s natural sugars are slowly released into the blood stream, helping maintain steady blood sugar levels.

Arrow-leaved balsamroot – Are all parts are edible? Leaves can be eaten raw, boiled, or steamed. Roots are edible but bitter unless slow-cooked to remove indigestible polysaccharide (inulin). Root tea. Used to treat tuberculosis and whooping cough. Powdered root is antifungal. Relieve sores, insect bites, burns, and blisters. Infusions or decoctions of roots can be used for stomach aches, fevers, headaches, etc.

Arrowhead, wapato, indian potato, etc. – Edible tubers and rhizomes. Mature plant produces calcium oxalate crystals? Sap is poisonous? The poisonous Arrow Arum (Peltandra virginica) looks similar but can be easily distinguished by looking at the leaf veins and rounded leaf lobes (toxic)? If there are only three, then toxic. If there are many leaf veins radiating outward, then it is Arrowhead and is safe to eat. Pointed leaf lobes (safe)? Are edible tubers toxic for dogs? Can be used for kidney ailments, diuretic for urinary or rheumatism, helps with indigestion, etc.

Asparagus (Asparagi Rhizoma Root, Asparagus longifolius, Asparagus officinalis, Asperge, Asperge Comestible, Asperge Commune, Asperge Officinale, Asperges, Espárrago, Espárragos, Garden Asparagus, Spargelkraut, Spargelwurzelstock, Sparrow Grass) – Young shoots are edible raw, but are best when cooked. Helps with urinary tract conditions including UTI (urinary tract infection). Vitamins A, C, and K. High in fiber. Helps with weight-loss, improved digestion, and to lower blood pressure.

Barton raspberry (Rubus bartonianus) – Supposedly edible. Fruit is edible, raw or cooked.

Bearberry or Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) – Fruit is edible and leaves can be used for medicinal uses. Contains hydroquinone? Liver damage? Mild diuretic, antimicrobial properties, glycoside arbutin, urinary tract complaints including urolithiasis and cystitis.

Bedstraw (Catchweed bedstraw) – Stem, leaves, and flowers of plant can be eaten raw. Used for spasms, tumors, loss of appetite, and chest or lung ailments. Increases urine output as diuretic for relieving water retention, especially for swollen ankles. Also used for hysteria, epilepsy, and cancer.

(M) Bistort (Persicaria bistorta) – All parts or at least leaves, seeds, and roots are edible. Used for diarrhea and digestion problems. Apply to wounds and/or irritation. Strongly astringent, and used to contract tissues or staunch blood flow. Root is powerfully astringent, diuretic, febrifuge, laxative, and strongly styptic. Used in treatment of internal and external bleeding, dysentery, cholera, diarrhea, cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, peptic ulcers, excessive menstruation, and catarrh. Wash for burns. Used as mouth wash or garble to treat spongy gums, sore throats, and mouth ulcers.

Biscuit root (Lomatium) – Root is edible, raw or cooked. Seeds flavoring. Highly edible. Used for pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis, coughs, and colds. Roots burned and inhaled for asthma, chest congestion, nasal problems, etc.

“Hairy” Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta) – Entire plant is edible. Contains tons of vitamin C. Glucosinolates help remove carcinogens from body. Contains beta-carotene, vitamin C, and even lutein.

Bulrush (Typha minima) – All parts appear to be safe. Does it help treat bleeding as well as snakebites?

(B) Burdock – Burdock is considered safe (can resemble belladonna nightshade, though?). Roots, flower-spikes, and leaves appear to be edible. Lightly cooked root supposedly helps regulate blood sugar and is considered antidiabetic. Can make carbohydrate rich broth. Root polysaccharides lower blood sugar by slowing absorption of glucose in blood sugar. Strengthens lymphatic system, stomach, and liver? Oil from seed reduces wrinkles and can help skin.

Black medic – Leaves are edible cooked. Seeds can be cooked. Contains antibacterial qualities. Is it laxative?

(B) Blueberries – Good source of vitamin C (helps prevent scurvy which is lack of vitamin C). Does it helps diabetes? It is an antioxidant and may improve blood flow. Appears to help dopamine levels. Leaves help to treat diabetes. Fresh or dried berries can be used for diarrhea.

(M) Blue-eyed grass – Leaves are edible cooked. Root tea diarrhea and intestinal problems. Menstrual disorders. Expel intestinal worms.

Cattail – Safe. Lots of edible parts. Contains essential amino acids and bioflavonoids. Definitely a resourceful and good plant. Chopped root rich in starch and can be applied to wounds, minor abrasions, etc. Burned cattail ash is styptic.

Chickweed – Excess amounts can cause vomiting and nausea. One can develop a rash. People allergic to daisy plants should use caution. Should be avoided by children, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Helps with bowel problems, constipation, stomach problems, lung diseases, obesity, vitamin C deficiency disease called scurvy, skin condition called psoriasis, muscle or joint pain, itching, and rabies.

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum?) – Entire part of the plant appears edible.

Chufa (Cyperus esculentus Tiger Nut) – Mainly the tubers are edible raw and supposedly leaf stems are edible raw as well. The high-quality edible oil can be used to fight against cardiovascular diseases. Has fiber, protein, carbohydrates as well as vitamins A and B. Plant is colic and can relieve indigestion. Contains potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, zinc and phosphorus. Calcium helps teeth and bones, intervenes in blood coagulation (changing to solid state), and in the transmission of nerve impulses.

(M) Clover or Red clover – Above-ground parts can be eaten raw. Root is edible cooked. Red clover in autumn should be avoided or not eaten in large quantities due to alkaloids. It’s difficult to digest. Plant helps with inflammatory conditions (for example, arthritis), menopausal and menstrual symptoms, skin disorders, and to treat respiratory issues.

Common orache – Leaves are edible cooked. Contains strong amounts of oxalic acid. Sources say cooking helps remove oxalic acid, doesn’t at all, or partially. Seeds contain large amounts of saponins.

Common reedgrass (Phragmites australis) – Stems, shoots, and root are edible

Curly dock, Yellow Dock, Greater Water Dock (Polygonaceae, Rumex crispus L., Rumex orbiculatus A. Gray)) – The leaves, stems, seeds, and root are edible. Has high levels of oxalic acid like sorrel, spinach, and parsley. Sources say cooking helps remove oxalic acid, doesn’t at all, or partially. Leaves appear to be high in tannic as well. Is the root high in iron? Dried or powdered root is supposedly used to stop bleeding (styptic). Supposedly helps skin conditions and helps cleanse the liver.

Cranberry – Edible. Appears to be good for UTI’s (urinary tract infections)? High in oxalates which is bad for kidneys. Other source says it is good for kidneys. Probably avoid if you suspect kidney problems. Can block nutrients in digestive tract.

Dame’s rocket – The leaves, seeds, and flowers of the plant are edible but a strong dose can cause vomiting. It is rich in vitamin C and potassium.

Dandelion – All-parts are edible. Contains vitamins A, C and K as well as iron, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

Duckweed – Contains water purifying properties. Plant can be dried and made into tea. Always cook as the water source can be polluted. It’s high in protein and contains vitamins A and B. Can be used to treat hypothermia, flatulence (gas), acute kidney infections, jaundice, rheumatism, and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.

Fleabane (Erigeron peregrinus) – Are only the leaves are edible (boiled)? Used to treat worm infections, diarrhea, tumors, urinary tract infections (UTI’s), bleeding from uterus, fluid retention, swelling, fever, sore throat, and swollen airways (bronchitis).

Garden Orache – The leaves and young stems are the main edible parts. Younger leaves can be eaten raw, older ones (a bit tougher) are best cooked. Seeds supposedly edible but contain saponins.

Gairdner’s Yampah – CAUTION LOOKS LIKE POISON-HEMLOCK and/or WATER HEMLOCK. Entire plant is edible. Root and leaves appear edible, raw or cooked. Root urine is inducing, laxative, and helps diseases and disorders of eyes. 

Goldenrod – Really safe flowers, leaves, and seeds. Root diuretic, inflammation reducer, etc. Used to treat urinary tract inflammation and to prevent or treat kidney stones. Eczema, joint pain (rheumatism), muscle spasms, hemorrhoids, etc.

Golden Currant – Fruits are edible, raw or cooked. Flowers are edible raw. Appears to be safe.

Groundcone – Root is edible. The potato-like stem bases were occasionally peeled and eaten raw as a snack by some North American Indian tribes.

Grouse whortleberry (Vaccinium spp.) – Fruits of grouse whortleberry are edible (difficult to gather as they are small). Berries may be eaten fresh, cooked, or made into jam and wine.

Gromwell – Root edible cooked but contains some toxic alkaloids. Mature seeds can be used as an oxytocic, diuretic, and lithotripsic. Ground into powder for arthritis and bladder stones. Are leaves sedative? Syrup from root and stems used in treatment of eruptive diseases such as itch, measles and smallpox. All parts inhibit the secretion of pituitary gonadotrophic hormone.

Hawthorne – Seed is not edible. Toxic. Hawthorn helps control high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Protects against heart disease. Hawthorn increases coronary artery blood flow (good for heart), lowers blood pressure, and improves circulation.

High mallow – Not a toxic plant. All parts appear to be edible which includes roots, stems, flowers, leaves, and fruits. Mallow helps throat and mouth irritation, bronchitis, and dry cough as well as bladder and stomach complaints. To treat wounds, put mallow in a warm moist dressing (poultice), and apply it to skin.

(B) Huckleberries – Several different types are edible. They resemble berries. Helps high blood sugar (high in antioxidants), kidney damage and poor tissue healing. Moreover, they help lower one’s cholesterol and help with dementia and in reducing tumor formation.

(B) Jerusalem Artichoke – Tuber is edible raw and best when cooked. Helps with rheumatism, diabetes, digestion, and is tonic.

Jewelweed (Uncommon) – Flowers and shoots should be cooked. Jewelweed can be mashed to treat poison ivy.

Knotweed – Early spring shoots and leaves edible raw or cooked. Seeds edible?

Lamb’s Quarter – Leaves, flowers, and stems are edible. Appears to be a fairly safe plant. There are oxalates and nitrates in leaves, however. Seeds in quantity may be toxic – contain saponin, which is a natural soap-like substance. 

Marsh-marigold – Roots, leaves, and flowers are edible. Appears to be somewhat safe. Never eat raw due to toxic glycosides (can hurt heart). Toxic glycosides are also bad for nervous system, stomach, and probably other areas. Does cooking help get rid of glycosides?

Miner’s lettuce – All parts appear edible except for root. Does it contain soluble oxalates? Is it best boiled?

Mountain sorrel – Are the leaves fairly safe to eat except for the oxalic acid? Is it best cooked? Supposedly rich in Vitamin C. and can help with scurvy.

Monkey Flower – FDA doesn’t have Mimulus listed as toxic. Leaves and flowers are edible. Is the root edible?

Mullein – Leaves and flowers are edible. Can leaves be smoked to clear mucus? Should one avoid the seeds? Mullein is used for cough, whooping cough, tuberculosis, bronchitis, hoarseness, pneumonia, earaches, colds, chills, flu, swine flu, fever, allergies, tonsillitis, and sore throats. Other uses include asthma, diarrhea, colic, gastrointestinal bleeding, migraines, joint pain, and gout.

Musk Mallow – Like high mallow, it appears to be fairly safe to eat? Leaves, flowers, roots, and seeds appear to be edible? Poultice can be used for bruises, inflammations, snake bites, respiratory system diseases, and urinary or inflammation of the digestive tract.

(M, B) Mulberry – Contains iron, vitamin C, and can lower one’s cholesterol. Used to lower blood sugar and supposedly reduce the risk of cancer. The root bark, twigs, and ripe berry, are used to make medicine. Black mulberry is used for symptoms of menopause, constipation, and runny nose (rhinitis). A black mulberry from molasses helps treat inflamed mouth sores during cancer treatment.

Northern Water Plantain – Bulbous base of plant is edible raw.

Nodding Onion – Bulbs are edible, raw or cooked. Leaves are edible, raw or cooked. Flowers are edible, raw or cooked. Medicinal Uses: the whole plant has mild medicinal activity similar to the action of garlic (Allium sativum). It is used specifically as a poultice on the chest for the treatment of respiratory ailments and the juice has been used in the treatment of kidney stones. The juice of the plant is used in treating colds, croup, sore throats, etc. Similarly, a poultice of the plant is applied externally to various infections such as sore throats, sores, swellings, chest and pleurisy pains. Other Uses: the juice of the plant is used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles. The juice can be applied to exposed skin in order to repel biting insects.

Onion – Bulb and leaves are edible, raw or cooked. Flowers can also be eaten, raw or cooked. Edible Uses: the bulb and leaves of short-styled onion are edible, raw or cooked. The plant has thick iris-like rhizomes. The young and succulent leaves are relished by many animals. The flowers can also be eaten raw, and used as a garnish on salads. Medicinal Uses: a poultice of the ground root and stems, or an infusion of them, was used as a wash for carbuncles by the Cheyenne Indians. Although no other specific mention of medicinal uses has been seen for this species, members of this genus are in general very healthy additions to the diet. They contain Sulphur compounds (which give them their onion flavor) and when added to the diet on a regular basis, they help reduce blood cholesterol levels, act as a tonic to the digestive system, and also tonify the circulatory system. Other Uses: the juice of the plant has been used as a moth repellent. The whole plant is said to repel insects and moles.

Oxeye Daisy – Appears to be fairly safe. Leaves, shoots, and roots are edible, raw or cooked.

Oregon grape – Boiled berries can be pounded into paste. Oregon grape is a plant. The root and root-like stem (rhizome) are used to make medicine. Oregon grape is used for stomach ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), stomach upset, as a bitter tonic, to treat infections, and to cleanse the bowels.

(B) Peppergrass – Leaves are edible, green seed pods are edible, and seeds are edible. The leaves of wild pepper-grass are nutritious and generally detoxifying, they have been used to treat vitamin C deficiency and diabetes, and to expel intestinal worms. The herb is also diuretic and of benefit in easing rheumatic pain.

Phlox (Creeping phlox or eastern Washington phlox?) – Sources say the plant is not poisonous nor edible. Supposedly can cause someone to vomit. While low growing Creeping Phlox is toxic, the tall type of perennial phlox (Phlox paniculata) is edible and resembles Dame’s Rocket. The main difference is phlox has five petals, while dame’s rocket has four.

Pigweed – Leaves are edible raw and seeds can be roasted. Supposedly every part of the plant is edible. The leaves contain vitamins A and C, iron, and calcium. Pigweed plant uses include harvesting and eating the seeds, raw or cooked. The seeds are particularly nutritious and are high in protein, fiber, and vitamins A and C. You can eat the seeds raw, roasted, cooked as a hot cereal, and even popped like popcorn.

(M) Pineapple weed – Both the leaves and flowers of pineapple weed are edible. Medicinal uses include treating gastrointestinal upset and gas, infected sores, fevers, menstrual pain and postpartum anemia. Many Native American nations also used pineapple weed as a perfume, insect repellant, preservative, jewelry, and in sun dance and sweat lodge ceremonies.

Plantain – The plant is highly nutritious (high in vitamins A, C, and K). Young tender leaves can be eaten raw, and seeds are also edible. Plantain has long been considered by herbalists to be a useful remedy for coughs, wounds, inflamed skin or dermatitis, and insect bites. Bruised or crushed leaves have been applied topically to treat insect bites and stings, eczema, and small wounds or cuts.

(B) Prickly-pear cactus – The flesh of the plant is edible, berries are edible, and seeds can be dried and used for flour. Prickly pear cactus is also used for medicine. Prickly pear cactus is used for type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity, alcohol hangovers, colitis, diarrhea, and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). It is also used to fight viral infections. In foods, the prickly pear juice is used in jellies and candies.

Primrose – Young shoots can be eaten raw or cooked. Roots can be eaten cooked. Young seedpods are edible cooked or steamed. The plant contains gammo-lenic acid.

Purslane – This is a highly nutritional plant. It contains Omega-3 fatty acids, beta carotene, and iron.

Quickweed (variations are Gallant Soldier) – Leaves, stem, and flowering shoots are edible raw.

Raspberry or Thimbleberry (Rose family) – Plant is edible raw or cooked. Berries and leaves prevent scurvy, are used to treat anemia and spitting of blood, leaves can reduce swelling, prevent scarring, and can be used to treat cuts, burns, and acne.

Roseroot (varieties in pacific northwest include western roseroot) – Leaves and shoots can be eaten raw or cooked. Roots can be eaten raw or cooked.

Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) – The fruit appears sweet yet edible.

Salsify – Every part is supposedly edible. Roots and leaves are edible raw.

Self-heal – Leaves and stems can be eaten raw.

Service-berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) – Juice used for stomach ailments, laxative, and ear-drops and eye drops made from ripe berries. Boiled bark can be used as a disinfectant. Root infusion can be used to prevent a miscarriage after an injury. Wood can be used for arrows.

Sheep sorrel – Leaves are edible. Are they best cooked as plant contains oxalic acid? Sheep sorrel has been historically used to treat inflammation, scurvy, cancer, and diarrhea. It is also one of the four ingredients in Essiac, an alternative cancer treatment. The major constituents include anthraquinones and oxalates.

Shepherd’s purse – Young leaves, flowering shoots, and seedpods are edible. Plant contains vitamins A, C, B2, and K. It also contains Niacin. Shepherd’s purse is used for heart and circulatory problems including mild heart failure, low blood pressure, and nervous heart complaints. It is also used for headache, vomiting blood, blood in the urine, diarrhea, and bladder infections.

Siberian Miner’s lettuce – Leaves are edible, raw or cooked. Plant is probably best cooked. Leaves contain vitamin C. They usually have a fairly bland flavor and are quite nice in a salad or cooked as a green vegetable. The leaves have a distinct, earthy after-taste like raw beetroot. They are available all year round but can turn rather bitter in the summer, especially if the plant is growing in a hot, dry position. The leaves are produced in abundance and are very easily harvested.

Silver Orache – Leaves are edible raw. Probably best cooked as it appears to contain oxalic acid. Plant seeds contain saponins.

Silverweed – All parts are supposedly edible. Leaves are not listed on the northern bushcraft site (https://northernbushcraft.com/topic.php?name=silverweed®ion=yt&ctgy=edible_plants), however.

(M) Sow Thistle – Leaves are edible raw. Are the flowers and shoots edible as well? Sonchus oleraceus , Sow Thistle, is used in the treatment of headaches, general pain, diarrhea, menstrual problems, fever, hepatitis, salmonella infection, wars, eye problems, liver infections, infections, inflammation and rheumatism. It is also used to treat a wide variety of infections.

Speedwell – Leaves are edible raw and are high in vitamin C

Spring beauty – Leaves, flowers, and corms are edible. They contain vitamins A and C.

Stonecrop (allegheny stonecrop is another type?) – Generally non-toxic. Young leaves and shoots are edible raw. The rhizome can be boiled.

Stork’s-bill geranium – Supposedly the entire plant, including the leaves, are edible raw. The entire plant can also be used as a green dye.

Strawberry-blite – Young plants including flowers are edible raw. Seeds eaten in quantity may be toxic. Raw plant should be eaten in moderation due to oxalates (which can prevent nutrient absorption).

Sunflowers – Sprouts are edible. Seeds (kernels) can be eaten raw and are high in protein and fats as well as antioxidants and vitamin E. Seems like the entire plant is edible.

Swamp Hedge-nettle – The plant is supposedly edible. The rhizome is edible raw. Roots can be made into flour. Young shoots can be cooked, flowers are edible, and seeds are edible.

Sweet clover – Young leaves gathered can be eaten raw. Does the plant contain alkaloids? Do not ingest moldy plants due to the presence of dicoumarol.

Sweet root (is it the same as bittersweet root?) – The root is edible raw or cooked. Seeds are edible raw.

Stinging Nettle – Appears to be an extremely useful plant. Plant is both nutritious and edible. Contains the following vitamins:  A, C and K, as well as several B vitamins. Contains the following minerals: calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium. Contains the following fatty acids: linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid. Contains the following amino acids: all of the essential amino acids. Contains the following polyphenols: kaempferol, quercetin, caffeic acid, coumarins and other flavonoids. Contains the following pigments: beta-carotene, lutein, luteoxanthin and other carotenoids.

(B) Thistle – Roots, stems, leaves, and flowerheads are edible. Eat in moderation. Warning: some thistles are carcinogenic. Boil the root to release inulin (helps diabetes, weight loss, etc.)

Trillium (Trillium ovatum) – Leaves can be eaten raw or cooked (used in spring). The young unfolding leaves are an excellent addition to the salad bowl, having a taste that is somewhat reminiscent to sunflower seeds. Leaves can also be cooked as a potherb. Best to consume in small quantities only.

Twisted stalk – Fruit is edible, raw or cooked. Shoot is edible, raw or cooked. Root is edible, raw or cooked. Looks to be safe, but don’t confuse with other plants.

Violets – Leaves and flowers are edible raw. Contains high amounts of vitamin C. Colors are purple, yellow, white, and blue.

Watercress (Nasturtium officinale L.) – Entire plant is edible and is high in vitamin C. It supports one’s immune system, helps prevent scurvy, and contains potent antioxidants. It’s used as a heart tonic, stimulating expectorant, for coughs, bronchitis, colds, as a diuretic to release fluid retention, and to clean kidneys and bladder. Contains Isothiocyanates which help protect against cancer.

Water Speedwell – Leaves are edible, raw or cooked. The plant is high in vitamin C.

Water leaf – Shoots and leaves are edible cooked. The root tea was used as an astringent for bleeding and for dysentery. The roots were mashed and were chewed or were used as a wash for cracked lips and for mouth sores.

Wax Currant – Fruit is edible, raw or cooked. Leaves are edible, raw or cooked. Flowers can be eaten raw. Inner bark wash can be used for eyes. Plant can be used for diarrhea. Lots of fruit can be eaten to induce vomiting.

Western Larch (Larix occidentalis) – The inner bark can be eaten raw or can be dried by being ground into a powder, and can be used with cereal flours in making bread. A sweet-tasting manna is obtained from the trunk. (It can be eaten raw but is mainly used medicinally.)

Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) – Seed and bark appear to be edible.

Wild Bergamot, Bee Balm, Horsemint (Lamiaceae, Monarda fistulosa L., Monarda didyma L.)) – The whole plant above the ground is edible. The oil is anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal.

Wild Carrot – The root is edible. Warning the fool’s parsley smells nasty and like poison hemlock – crush leaves and smell . Wild carrot, particularly root, smells like carrots. Stem of the wild carrot is hairy and the stem of poison hemlock is smooth. Also, poison hemlock has toxic reddish or purple spots.

Wild Licorice – Rhizome is edible raw. Large amounts toxic can be toxic. Can be used as a tooth cleaner. Can be used for food poisoning, stomachache, abscesses insomnia, sores, and herpes. Today’s uses include ulcer treatment and arthritis, as an anti-inflammatory and an effective treatment for cold sores and hives.

Wild Grape – Grape vines have curly tendrils. Should have one to four teardrop-shaped seeds. (DANGEROUS MOONSEED is curved and has a flat seed).

(M) Wild Mint, Peppermint (Lamiacea, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita L.) – Leaves are edible, raw or cooked. Can be used for astringent, diarrhea, and menstrual cramps. Used to clean teeth. Can help blood flow. It can be used as a diaphoretic (perspirant), cholagogue (purging of bile downward), carminative and for digestive disorders (flatulence, relieves bowels and digestive system), antispasmodic (relieves muscle spasms), antiseptic (stops or slows down the growth of microorganisms), headaches, and febrifuge (reduce fevers).

Wild Chives – Is it mainly for medicinal uses? All parts look edible. Don’t confuse with mountain death-camas, which has no onion-like smell. Helps to prevent cancer, prevent osteoporosis (packed with Vitamin K), and improve memory (choline and folate).

Wild Rose – Rose petals are edible, buds are edible, young shoots are edible, young leaves are edible, fruit is edible, and hips can be dried for storage.

Wild strawberry – Fruits are edible raw, cooked, or made into preserves. Leaves are rich in vitamin C. Can be used for gout, scurvy, and kidney disease. Plant also contains antioxidants.

Wild Rice – Source of B vitamins, iron, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and manganese.

Wild Oat – Seeds are inside hairy spikelet’s at the top of the plant.

Wild Wheat – You can thresh seeds from inside the spikelet’s and grind into flour. Watch out for toxic purple fungus that grows in spikelet’s.

Wood sorrel – Leaves, flowers, and seed pods are edible. Raw leaves and raw flowers contain oxalic acid (long-term use may result in a nutritional deficiency). Cooking in water appears to help get rid of oxalic acid. Oxalic acid is bad for kidneys, burns, etc.

Yellowcress – Are all parts edible? Young leaves, stems and young seedlings can be eaten raw or cooked

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